This document explains how the rewards for validator are evaluated and displayed on the Aptos Validator Status page.
How rewards are calculated
For a backgrounder on staking with explanations of epoch, rewards and how to join and leave validator set, see the Staking.
- An epoch starts with a finalized validator set. During the epoch, only validators in this validator set will vote.
- Epoch value on the mainnet is set by the governance. See Aptos Blockchain Deployments for epoch values for other Aptos networks.
- During the epoch, following the process described in Validation on the Aptos blockchain, a validator is selected as a leader to make a proposal. Because the validator set is unchanged during the course of an epoch, this will result in a validator being selected multiple times as a leader in an epoch.
- On successful proposals, i.e., proposals achieving the quorum consensus, the leaders earn rewards based on their stake and on the reward rate that is configured on-chain. The reward rate is the same for every validator.
- If all the proposals in an epoch achieve quorum consensus, a validator earns the maximum reward for the epoch. Rewards are given only to the leader validators, and not to the voters.
- On failed proposals, i.e., a proposal that did not achieve the quorum consensus, the leaders do not earn any reward for that proposal.
- If all the proposals in an epoch fail, a validator earns zero rewards for that epoch.
Note that the rewards are given only at the end of the epoch, not on every block.
The reward a leader receives is calculated by multiplying the maximum possible reward with the leader's proposal success rate. For example:
- A leader with 8 successful and 2 failed proposals will receive 80% of maximum reward.
- Similarly, another leader with 80 successful and 20 failed proposal will also receive 80% of maximum reward.
- Also, two leaders with no failures but one with 10 and another with 100 successful proposals will get the same % of the maximum reward.
Note also that the reward rate is the same for every validator. Hence the maximum reward is directly proportional to the staking amount, i.e., the more a validator stakes, the more the validator can earn in absolute terms.
- The REWARDS PERFORMANCE column shows the rewards performance of a validator. It is calculated as a % of reward earned by the validator out of the maximum reward earning opportunity i.e.,
(rewards earned across the epochs)/(maximum reward opportunity across the epochs). This is a cumulative metric across all the epochs.
- A validator can improve their performance by improving their proposal success rate.
Last epoch performance
The LAST EPOCH PERFORMANCE column shown on the leaderboard is reported as
(number of successful proposals)/(number of total proposal opportunities).
- This metric gives you an early indicator if your performance is slowly reducing.
- You can see the JSON dump (link on the leaderboard) to see the performance across all the epochs.
- On mouse hover, you can see the last epoch for the validator.
The GOVERNANCE VOTES column shown on the leaderboard is reported as
(governance proposals voted on)/(total governance votes).